Functional Groups

Most of the chemical and physical properties of organic compounds can be attributed to what functional group is present in the structure. Most of the time a functional group also means a whole classification of species. However, note that some groups don't necessarily make a full classification of compound type - like a carbonyl group. It is in many types/classifications of compounds so you have to see what the group is next to in order to determine the classification.

carbonyl group

carbonyl group

carbonyl group

carboxylic acid

carboxylic acid

carboxylic acid

alcohol

alcohol

alcohol

hydroxyl group

hydroxyl group

hydroxyl group

amide

amide

amide

amine

amine

amine

ester

ester

ester

ether

ether

ether

ketone

ketone

ketone

aldehyde

aldehyde

aldehyde

thiol

thiol

thiol

nitrile

nitrile

nitrile

alkyl halide

alkyl halide

alkyl-halide

X = F, Cl, Br, I

alkene

alkene

alkene

alkyne

alkyne

alkyne



Some More Group Names that are Useful (and common)

–CH3 methyl group

–CH2– methylene group

-C6H5 phenyl group

-CH2-C6H5 benzyl group

-C6H4– phenylene group



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